Detailed Table of Contents

Diesel-Electric Locomotives

How They Work, Use Energy, and Can Become More Efficient and Environmentally Sustainable

Foreword – Bryan Schlake
Preface – Why Energy?

1. Introducing the Diesel-Electric Locomotive

 • 1.1 Diesel Engine + Electric Transmission
 • 1.2 The Advantages of Diesel-Electric Locomotives
 • 1.3 Critical Energy Systems for Diesel-Electric Locomotives

    bullet Diesel Engine
    bullet Electric Transmission
       Sidebar: Understanding Force, Energy, Power, and Velocity
 • 1.4 Performance Criteria for Diesel-Electric Locomotives
 • 1.5 Today’s Diesel-Electric Locomotive Fleet

2. How Diesel-Electric Locomotive Energy Systems Work

 • 2.1 Locomotive Configuration
 • 2.2 Operator’s Cab
 • 2.3 Electronic Control Systems

    bullet Locomotive Energy Management Programs
    bullet Event Recorder
    bullet Positive Train Control (PTC)
 • 2.4 Diesel Fuel and Fuel Tank
       Sidebar: Diesel Fuel Tanks vs. Coal Tenders
 • 2.5 The Diesel Engine or “Prime Mover”
    bullet Engine and Locomotive Operation
    bullet Engine Control Unit
    bullet Fuel Injection System
    bullet Combustion Air System
    bullet Lubrication Oil System
    bullet Cooling Water System
    bullet Idle-Reduction Technologies
       Sidebar: What’s the Right Amount of Horsepower?
 • 2.6. Traction and Other Alternators/Rectifiers
    bullet Traction Alternator and Rectifiers
    bullet Auxiliary and Companion Alternators
    bullet Magnitude of Power Production
 • 2.7 Traction Inverters
 • 2.8 AC Traction Motors

    bullet Superiority of AC Traction Motors
 • 2.9 Locomotive Trucks and Running Gear
    bullet The Challenge of Adhesion
       Sidebar: Use of Rail Lubricants and Friction Modifiers
 • 2.10 Auxiliary Energy Systems
 • 2.11 Locomotive and Train Braking Systems

    bullet Locomotive Independent Brakes
    bullet Locomotive Dynamic Brakes
    bullet Train Air Brakes
    bullet Locomotive and Train Parking Brakes  

• 2.12 Head-End Power
       Sidebar: The Evolution of Head-End Power
 • 2.13 Locomotive Aerodynamics
       Sidebar: Top Speeds of Diesel-Electric Passenger Locomotives
 • 2.14 Other Types of Locomotives
    bullet Genset Locomotives
    bullet Slug Locomotives
    bullet Repowered Locomotives
    bullet De-Rated Locomotives

3. Diesel-Electric Locomotive Fuel Economy and Energy Efficiency

 • 3.1 Energy Advantages of Railroads and Trains
    bullet Rolling Resistance Advantage
    bullet Aerodynamic Advantage
 • 3.2 Railroad Corporate Average Fuel Economy
    bullet Association of American Railroads Revenue Ton-Miles per Gallon
    bullet Individual Railroad Company GTM and RTM per Gallon
    bullet Amtrak BTUs per Passenger-Mile
       Sidebar: Fuel Use vs. Fuel Economy
 • 3.3 Locomotive Fuel Economy
    bullet Types of Locomotive Horsepower
    bullet Net Traction Horsepower
    bullet Traction Horsepower
    bullet Brake Horsepower
    bullet Measures of Locomotive Fuel Economy
    bullet Net Traction Specific Fuel Consumption
    bullet Brake Specific Fuel Consumption
    bullet Brake Horsepower-Hours per Gallon
    bullet Fuel Consumption Rate for Different Throttle Settings
    bullet Fuel Economy by Manufacturer
    bullet Fuel Economy and the Purchasing Process
       Sidebar: Confidentiality about Locomotive Fuel Economy and Efficiency
 • 3.4 Locomotive Design Energy Efficiency
 • 3.5 Locomotive Operational Efficiency
 • 3.6 Prospects for Diesel-Electric Locomotive Efficiency Improvement

4. Energy Efficient Diesel-Electric Locomotive Operation

 • 4.1 Engineer Recommendations for Efficient Locomotive Operation
       Sidebar: Incentive Programs for Locomotive Engineers
• 4.2 Role of Energy Management Systems
    bullet Cruise Control for Locomotives
       Sidebar: Advances in Semi-Truck Technology Challenge Railroads
    bullet Locomotive Black Box
 • 4.3 Dispatcher and Trainmaster Recommendations
 • 4.4 Railroad Management Recommendations
 • 4.5 Distributed Power Operation

       Sidebar: Longest, Heaviest Trains

5. EPA Emissions Standards, Tier 4 Locomotives, and Energy Impact

 • 5.1 EPA Locomotive Emissions Regulations Overview
 • 5.2 Achieving Tier 4 Compliance Without Aftertreatment
 • 5.3 Urea SCR Aftertreatment to Achieve Tier 4 Compliance

       Sidebar: GE, EMD, and EPA Tier 4 Negotiating History
 • 5.4 Impact of Tier 4 on Fuel Economy
 • 5.5 Tier 5 Emissions Standards?

6. Future Directions for Diesel-Electric Locomotives

 • 6.1 The Challenge of Climate Change
 • 6.2 Waste Heat Energy Recovery
 • 6.3 Hybrid Locomotives, Battery Tenders, ZEBLs

    bullet Green Goat Hybrid Locomotive
    bullet GE Hybrid Locomotive
    bullet Energy Storage Tenders for Hybrid Locomotives
    bullet Motorized Battery Tenders or ZEBLs
 • 6.4 Alternative Fuels for Diesel-Electric Locomotives
    bullet Natural Gas
    bullet Fischer-Tropsch Process Fuel
    bullet Biofuels
    bullet Biodiesel
    bullet Renewable Diesel
    bullet Biogas, Renewable Natural Gas, or Biomethane

• 6.5 Hydrogen Fuel Cells as Alternative Prime Mover
    bullet How Fuel Cells Work
    bullet Barriers to Fuel Cell Locomotives

• 6.6 Conventional Electrification
    bullet How Electric Locomotives Work
    bullet Cost/Benefit of Railroad Electrification
    bullet Electrification of Freight Railroads
    bullet Estimating the Cost of Partial Electrification
       Sidebar: How Many Wind Turbines Would It Take?
    bullet Low- or No-Carbon Power for Electrification

• 6.7 Carbon Credits to Offset Carbon Emissions

7. Railroad Environmental Sustainability

 • 7.1 Railroad Sustainability Reports
 • 7.2 The Cargo Conundrum

    bullet Passenger and Freight Rail in Low Carbon Economy

Acronyms and Abbreviations
Appendix – Selected Sources and Recommended Reading
About the Author